9K11 Malyutka

NATO: AT-3 Sagger


9K11 Malyutka

Polish Mi-2URP-G helicopter with 9M14 type missile mounted on stub wing.
Source: Pibwl - © GNU Attribution - Share Alike license

Soviet Union
Man portable anti-tank missile
Entered service
In service
1961 - 1962
Soviet Union - KBM Kolomna
1963 - 1984 (USSR)
Soviet Union - ZiD
North Korea
Number produced
Over 300.000 missiles produced in the USSR
AT-3 Sagger (NATO reporting name)
Notable users
Soviet Union
North Korea



The 9K11 Malyutka is an anti-tank missile system of Soviet origin. In the West it is known under the NATO reporting name AT-3 Sagger. The Malyutka was developed in the early 1960's as a man portable and more capable follow up for the 3M6 Shmel (NATO: AT-1 Snapper). Although considered obsolete by today's standards, it remains in widespread use while it is cheap compared to modern anti-tank guided weapons.


The Malyutka is a wire guided missile with a relatively simple design. The HEAT warhead is located in the front and has an impact fuze. Most of the body consists of the solid propellant rocket motor. Two exhaust nozzles are fitted in the middle of the body since the wire reel and control section for the four folding wings are located at the end.


Upon introduction the Malyutka used MCLOS guidance. The manpack control box consists of a joystick and magnified periscope. Later models switched to the more effective SACLOS guidance. These were only used on vehicles and helicopters. Some foreign modifications of the Malyutka use a new manpack control box using SACLOS guidance.


The Malyutka is effective against most early Cold War era tanks. The latest versions have a much improved performance, but cannot be considered top of the line. These missiles still present a serious threat against most armored fighting vehicles. The minimum range of 500 meters results in a dead zone that must be covered with rocket launchers. The maximum range is 3 km. The MCLOS versions have shown a hit ratio of about 25 percent and the SACLOS version of over 60 percent.

Launch platforms

The Malyutka is mainly used from the manpack launcher and various combat vehicles. The vehicles include the BMP-1 and BMD-1 mechanized infantry combat vehicles and various tank destroyers based on the BRDM-1 and BRDM-2 reconnaissance vehicles. Additionally it can be launched from several export versions of the Mi-24 and Mi-8 combat helicopters.


The Malyutka was produced in large quantities and was widely used throughout Cold War. It can be considered one of the iconic Soviet weapon systems. The Malyutka was not only used by the USSR and Warsaw Pact nations, it was also widely exported. In the Middle East, Asia and Africa it has seen widespread combat use. Newer and more capable anti-tank guided weapons have replaced the Malyutka in most militaries. However, large quantities remain in third world nations and even second line units in many other nations.


9K11 Malyutka

Czechoslovak soldier with 9K11 Malyutka.
Source: www.forum.valka.cz - © copyright lies with original owner

Variants of the 9M14 missile as produced by the USSR

9M14 Malyutka
Original production version introduced in 1963. Uses MCLOS guidance. NATO reporting name AT-3A Sagger A.
9M14M Malyutka-M
Improved 9M14 introduced in 1973. NATO reporting name AT-3B Sagger B. The new motor reduces the flight time. Otherwise it has similar characteristics as the original model, including the MCLOS guidance.
9M14P Malyutka-P
SACLOS guided version with improved warhead. Introduced in 1969. NATO reporting name AT-3C Sagger C. The SACLOS guided models are vehicle or helicopter launched only.
9M14P1 Malyutka-P1
9M14P with improved warhead with standoff probe. The probe was not added to defeat ERA, but to detonate the shaped charge at an optical distance from the armor.


Facts 9M14 9M14M 9M14P 9M14P1
Soviet Union
Anti-tank guided missile
About 11 kg
125 mm
393 mm
860 mm
Wire guidance
Operating mode
Single HEAT warhead
400 mm RHA
Single-stage solid propellant rocket motor
3 km maximum
0.5 to 0.8 km minimum
Max speed
About 100 m/s

Launch platforms


Control box with joystick and periscopic sight for the manpack launcher. MCLOS guidance only. The missile can be set up ready to launch several meters from the control box.


The BMP-1 was one of the first mechanized infantry combat vehicles. It uses the 9S428 control system to launch a 9M14 missile from the launch rail mounted over the 73mm 2A28 low pressure cannon.


The BMD-1 is an airborne infantry fighting vehicle. It is a lightweight vehicle that can be airdropped from transport aircraft. It uses the same turret as the BMP-1 and has a launch rail mounted over the 73mm 2A28 cannon and a 9S428 fire control system within the turret.


The 9P122 is a tank destroyer based on the chassis of the BRDM-2 amphibious reconnaissance vehicle. The 9P122 uses the MCLOS versions of the Malyutka.


The 9P133 is an improved version of the 9P122 tank destroyer. Both vehicles look very similar. The 9P133 is a major improvement since it uses the 9M14P variant of the Malyutka with SACLOS guidance.

Foreign models


The HJ-73 started out as a direct copy of the 9M14M Malyutka-M. Later versions add SACLOS guidance and have an improved warhead. The HJ-73 is one of the few Malyutka derivatives for which a SACLOS manpack launcher was developed.


Related articles

9K111 Fagot

The Fagot (NATO: AT-4 Spigot) replaced the Malyutka as a man portable anti-tank guided weapon. The Fagot is a far more capable system with SACLOS guidance, improved flight speed and better armor penetration.

9K113 Konkurs

The Konkurs (NATO: AT-5 Spandrel) was developed as replacement for the Malyutka for use by specialist anti-tank teams and as vehicle armament against main battle tanks. On the BMP-1P and BMD-1P it replaced the previous Malyutka system.